i. In this type, the main axis is condensed into a cup or flask-shaped, fleshy receptacle. 3. Corolla may be tubular, bell-shaped, funnel-shaped. Dicotyledonous flowers are usually di, tetra or pentamerous, while, monocotyledonous flowers are trimerous. Cotyledon; 2. • Roots of parasitic plants lack root caps. A typical leaf has three main parts. The ovules after fertilisation develops into seeds. contain toxic alkaloid nicotine. (a) Reduced Stems It is reduced to a small disc. (iii) Ornamentals The common ornamentals are Ruscus, Yucca, Aloe, Asparagus, Gloriosa, Smilax, tulips, lilies, etc. (d) Floral bud These are modified to form tendrils, e.g., Antigonon. (e) Basal In this type, the placenta develops at the base of ovary and a single ovule is attached to it as in sunflower, marigold. (a) Pinnately Compound Leaves In these leaves, the incision of lamina is directed towards the midrib, which is known as rachis. (e) Bulb It is a highly reduced disc like stem. The thalamus is the swollen end of the axis on which the floral whorls are arranged. (a) Upright Weak Stems These stems are weak which climb up a support to expose their foliage and reproductive organs. Importance of Fruits They are of following types These can be dry fruits (pericarp dry) or succulent fruits (pericarp fleshy). * Fruits developed from the fertilised ovary is called true fruits. They are of following four types iv. Megaspores are produced within the megasporangium.’A carpel consists of three parts, i.e., stigma, style and ovary. (i) Root Generally adventitious, fibrous or fleshy (e.g., Asparagus). If they are fused they are bracketed. Lamina (Epipodium) The Stem A flowers is called modified shoot because the position of the buds of both flower and shoot which is same and can be in terminal or axillary in position. Fruit is a mature or ripened ovary, developed after fertilisation. The leaf is attached to the stem by the leaf base. CBSE Maths notes, CBSE physics notes, CBSE chemistry notes. 4. (c) Androecium Stamens 10, usually diadelphous [(9) +1] or monadelphous, sometimes free, polyandrous, another dithecous, basifixed (attached by its base). nodes bear small scale leaves with buds in their axils, e.g., Zingiber (ginger officinale), Curcuma domestica (turmeric). It is the stalk of a leaf. 3. Root Hair Zone Anatomy of Flowering Plants Class 11 Notes Biology Chapter 6 CBSE NotesCBSE Notes Class 11 BiologyNCERT Solutions Biology This chapter introduces the internal […] They protect the plants from browsing animals, e.g., Citrus, Duranta, Bougainvillea, Pomegranate, etc. Morphology (Gr. (f) Floral Formula by Cladodes (Cladophylls) . For example., Solanum tuberosum (potato), Solanum melongena (brinjal), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Physalis peruviana (ground cherry), Capscicum annuum (chillies), etc. iii. This is required to designate a plant in its appropriate taxonomic position. Various types of root 1. Some phylloclades also store food and water. Stage Design - A Discussion between Industry Professionals. Coloured sepals attract insects for pollination. MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology: Ch 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants. In some seeds, such as castor seeds, the endosperm is formed as a result of double fertilisation, which is a food storing tissue. Secondary Functions The radicle develops into root and plumule into shoot. whether the apex gets converted into a flower or continues to grow, two major types of inflorescences are defined – racemose and cymose. It is of following types The placentation are of different types namely, marginal, axile, parietal, basal, central and free central. Distribution Dec 27, 2020 - NCERT Textbook - Anatomy of Flowering Plants NEET Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of NEET. The flower is the reproductive unit in the angiosperms. The notes also talk about Anatomy and Epidonomy, which are the two kinds of morphology. The tap roots are modified for the function like storage, nitrogen-fixation and respiration. CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 12. Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Remil ilmi. Morphology Of Flowering Plants Class 11 NCERT begins with a foreword about the variety of structures in higher plants. The various types of placentations found in flowering plants are: → Marginal placentation: The ovary in which the placenta forms a ridge along the ventral suture of the ovary and the ovules develop on two separate rows is known to have marginal placentation. Morphologically, it is considered as a shoot bearing nodes and modified floral leaves. The roots developing from any part of the plant other than the radicle are known as adventitious roots (L.adventitious .extraordinary). The Inflorescence The leaf apex is modified into a lid, e.g, Nepenthes, Dischidia and Sarracenia. 5. → In monocots, the primary root which develops from the radicle The thalamus grows along with the ovary to form a false fruit i.e. Ornamentals The common ornamental plants are Cestrum nocturnum (Rat-ki-Rani), Petunia hybrida, Physalis peruviana (cape gooseberry), etc. Bulbils Root hair zone is the most important part of the root for absorption of water (most of the water) from the soil. Shoot system bears branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. iii. ii. MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS NOTES. Petiole raises the lamina high to the level of stem so as to provide maximum required exposure to light and air. (b) Twisted Regular overlapping of petals occurs in which margin of one petal overlap with the next one petal, e.g., China rose (Hibiscus rosa sinensis). Monocots, the leaf base is said to be sheathing as it expands and partially and wholly surrounds the stem. It helps the future shoot in passing through the soil during germination, e.g., Maize grain is whitish, yellow, violet or red in colour. The aerial stems have two forms, i.e., reduced stem and erect stem. These positions may be of three types ii. A seed is made up of seed coats and an embryo. It contains root, stem, leaves as vegetative parts and flowers, fruits and seeds as reproductive parts. (i) Root Tap root with lateral branches. (b) Syncarpous When carpels are fused together, the gynoecium is called syncarpous, e.g., Brinjal and Hibiscus. All flowering plants or angiosperms consist of root, shoot, leaves, flowers, fruits. The Flower In racemose type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and the flowers are borne laterally in an acropetal succession (the older flowers are found towards the base and younger ones at the apex) or centripetal (older towards periphery and younger towards centre). (e) Stilt Roots These are small thick supporting roots growing obliquely from the basal nodes of the main stem. (c) Corm It is a swollen condensed form of rhizome which grows in the vertical direction in the soil. Floral Diagram The roots get modified into pneumatic structures providing extra passage to allow additional oxygen to the plant. The number of floral parts are written at right foot of the symbol. It shows distinction into nodes and internodes; where node is the region from where leaves are born and internodes are the region between two nodes. It is formed by the fusion of seed coat or testa and the fruit wall gr pericarp. The pedicel may be short, long or even absent. The entire leaf or a part of a leaf may be modified into a pointed structure called a spine, as in Opuntia. The arrangement and distribution of flowers over a plant is called inflorescence. Leaf Tendrils The pneumatophores or aerophores or respiratory roots grow vertically upward and are negatively geotropic. i. Reticulate Venation Morphe—form; logos—study). It is a petiole modified into a tendril to hold the pitcher upright. In botany, it generally means the study of external features, forms and relative positions of different organs on plants. It is a green, short lived and flattened petiole or rachis of a leaf, which performs the function of photosynthesis, e.g, Australian Acacia. Morphology of flowering plants part 2 for Std 11th NEET Infloresence, Flower, fruit , seed and angiosperm families, floral formula and floral diagram Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The number of locules in the ovary correspond to the number of carpels in the gynoecium, i.e., unilocular (only one locule, e.g., Pea), bilocular (two locules, e.g., Tomato), trilocular (three locules, e.g., Ricinus), multilocular (many locules, e.g., Orange and lemon). Free PDF download of Important Questions with Answers for CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants prepared by expert Biology teachers from latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books. The subaerial stem are also divided into two forms (a) Leaves store food as in the leaf base, e.g., Onion. (b) Prostate Weak Stems These weak stems take support of the ground for spreading as growth occurs. 3. Each tuber has many notches on the surface called eyes or buds, which grow into new plants, e.g, Solanum tuberosum (potato). The angiosperms are characterized by presence of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. Draw the labelled diagram of the following: 8. (ii) Medicines Aloe leaves are used to cure piles, liver problems. The lateral branches mostly contain bacterial nodules (with Rhizobium bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen). Description of this formula is Ebracteate, actinomorphic, bisexual, bimerous, calyx-4, polysepalous, in two whorls of two each corolla-4, polypetalous, cruciform, androecium-6, polyandrous, tetradynamous in two whorls, one with two, gynoecium—bicarpellary syncarpous, superior. For storage: taproots- carrot, turnip; adventitious roots- sweet potato. (i) The dichotomous branching occurs by the division of the apical growing point or bud into two equal parts in a forked manner. Leaves originate from shoot apical meristems and are arranged in an acropetal order. Plant morphology refers to the study of external form and structure of plants. i. Aerial Stems (b) Leaves change into phyilodes to protect against transpiration. (d) Tuber It is a swollen end of underground stem branches. (i) Food Allium cepa (onion), Allium sativum (garlic) young shoots and fleshy roots of Asparagus (shatavar) are used as vegetables. Primary Functions This modification is called as prop root. Floral Characters They may arise from the nodes, e.g., Ivy, Pothos (money plant). Stem may be aerial, subaerial or underground. The leaf is a lateral, generally flattened structure borne on the stem. (e) In some leaves like of Euphorbia, the young leaves are brightly coloured to attract insects for pollination. ii. Ovary is the enlarged basal part on which lies the elongated tube, the style. It protects the root meristem from friction of the soil particles and also protect tender apex which allow the passage of root through cells, e.g., Lemna, Eichhornia. Placentation: The arrangement of ovules within the ovary is known as placentation. Each ovary bears one or more ovules attached to a flattened, cushion like placenta. Petiole help hold the leaf blade towards light. The margin of thalamus grows upwards forming a cup like structure called calyx tube. The main axis is divided into two parts Plants belonging to the family-Solanaceae has their importance in the following fields The pattern of arrangement of leaves on the stem or branch is called phyllotaxy. (ix) Medicinal Plants The flowers of Trifolium pratense are used in whooping cough. These notes come in handy for the last-minute revision purpose. arranged at the base of this inflorescence. (b) Turnip: In turnip the root is modified to store extra food. Modification of the Root. Vegetable ghee is prepared by using the oils after hydrogenation. Seeds can be classified into two different types based on the number of cotyledons and presence or absence of endosperms, i.e., dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous seed. Aggregate (Etaerio) Fruits Growing Point (Meristematic) Zone (iv) Fibres The fibre yielding plants of IHy family are Yucca filamentosa, Sansevieria roxburghiana, etc. The aerial stems of some plants trail or creep on the ground. The symmetry of a flower depends upon the shape, size and arrangement of floral parts, e.g., Calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. The pollen grains are produced in pollen sacs. Parts of a Leaf Petals are usually brightly coloured to attract insects for pollination. Edible Parts of Some Common Fruits Revision Notes for Class 11 is a highly significant and need to be learn to do better for your Class 11 examination. Modification of Leaves The terminal part of the axis of the flower is the receptacle or thalamus. Justify the following statements on the basis of external features, (i) Underground parts of a plant are not always roots. Bellodona is used for relieving pain and treating cough. Revision Notes on Morphology of Flowering Plants. Every male flower is represented by a single stalked stamen borne in the axil of a scaly bract, e.g, Euphorbia. It develops at the node and bears a bud in its axil. Ovary is superior, whereas rest of the structures are inferior, e.g., Brassica, Hibiscus, Petunia. (b)polyandrous, opposite to tepals, sometimes epiphyllous. Number of Floral Parts A simple fruit develops from the single simple or compound ovary of a flower. This will help the students because the Revision Notes of class 11 is created by a team of skilled and experienced teachers. ii. ii. Each scale leaf contains an axillary bud in its axil, e.g, Zingiber officinale (ginger). Parallel Venation Scutellum and a radicle, they are called culms, after the jointed nature of their stems nitrogen. Notes also talk about Anatomy and Epidonomy, which gaseous exchange occurs, c! Bearing nodes and inter nodes are produced within the megasporangium. ’ a carpel consists of a young shoot at. 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